Are you looking for an easy guide on how to install Kubernetes Cluster on Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish)?
The step-by-step guide on this page will show you how to install Kubernetes cluster on Ubuntu 22.04 using Kubeadm command step by step.
Kubernetes is a free and open-source container orchestration tool, it also known as k8s. With the help of Kubernetes, we can achieve automated deployment, scaling and management of containerized application.
A Kubernetes cluster consists of worker nodes on which application workload is deployed and a set up master nodes which are used to manage worker nodes and pods in the cluster.
In this guide, we are using one master node and two worker nodes. Following are system requirements on each node,
- Minimal install Ubuntu 22.04
- Minimum 2GB RAM or more
- Minimum 2 CPU cores / or 2 vCPU
- 20 GB free disk space on /var or more
- Sudo user with admin rights
- Internet connectivity on each node
- Master Node: 192.168.1.173 – k8smaster.example.net
- First Worker Node: 192.168.1.174 – k8sworker1.example.net
- Second Worker Node: 192.168.1.175 – k8sworker2.example.net
Without any delay, let’s jump into the installation steps of Kubernetes cluster
Step 1) Set hostname and add entries in the hosts file
Login to to master node and set hostname using hostnamectl command,
sudo hostnamectl set-hostname "k8smaster.example.net"
On the worker nodes, run
sudo hostnamectl set-hostname "k8sworker1.example.net"
sudo hostnamectl set-hostname "k8sworker2.example.net"
Add the following entries in /etc/hosts file on each node
192.168.1.173 k8smaster.example.net k8smaster 192.168.1.174 k8sworker1.example.net k8sworker1 192.168.1.175 k8sworker2.example.net k8sworker2
Step 2) Disable swap & add kernel settings
Execute beneath swapoff and sed command to disable swap. Make sure to run the following commands on all the nodes.
sudo swapoff -a sudo sed -i '/ swap / s/^\(.*\)$/#\1/g' /etc/fstab
Load the following kernel modules on all the nodes,
sudo tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf <<EOF br_netfilter EOF sudo modprobe br_netfilter
Set the following Kernel parameters for Kubernetes, run beneath tee command
sudo tee /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf <<EOF net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1 net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1 net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1 EOF
Reload the above changes, run
sudo sysctl --system
Step 3) Install containerd run time
In this guide, we are using containerd run time for our Kubernetes cluster. So, to install containerd, first install its dependencies.
sudo apt install -y curl gnupg2 software-properties-common apt-transport-https ca-certificates
Enable docker repository
sudo curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmour -o /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker.gpg sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -cs) stable"
Now, run following apt command to install containerd
sudo apt update sudo apt install -y containerd.io
Configure containerd so that it starts using systemd as cgroup.
containerd config default | sudo tee /etc/containerd/config.toml >/dev/null 2>&1 sudo sed -i 's/SystemdCgroup \= false/SystemdCgroup \= true/g' /etc/containerd/config.toml sudo sed -i 's/snapshotter \= "overlayfs"/snapshotter \= "zfs"/g' /etc/containerd/config.toml
You will now need to create a zpool to use as the snapshotter for containerd. If you create this in the default path everything should work with the config created above, but you might need to set the path for the zfs snapshotter if you want a different path.
sudo zfs create -o mountpoint=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.zfs <your zfs pool>/containerd
Restart and enable containerd service
sudo systemctl restart containerd sudo systemctl enable containerd
Step 4) Add apt repository for Kubernetes
Execute following commands to add apt repository for Kubernetes
sudo curl -fsSL https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo gpg --dearmour -o /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/google.gpg sudo apt-add-repository "deb http://apt.kubernetes.io/ kubernetes-xenial main"
Note: At time of writing this guide, Xenial is the latest Kubernetes repository but when repository is available for Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish) then you need replace xenial word with ‘jammy’ in ‘apt-add-repository’ command.
Step 5) Install Kubernetes components Kubectl, kubeadm & kubelet
Install Kubernetes components like kubectl, kubelet and Kubeadm utility on all the nodes. Run following set of commands,
sudo apt update sudo apt install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl sudo apt-mark hold kubelet kubeadm kubectl
Step 6) Initialize Kubernetes cluster with Kubeadm command
Now, we are all set to initialize Kubernetes cluster. Run the following Kubeadm command from the master node only.
sudo kubeadm init --control-plane-endpoint=k8smaster.example.net
Output of above command should end with something like the following,
Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully! To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user: mkdir -p $HOME/.kube sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config Alternatively, if you are the root user, you can run: export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster. Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/ Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root: kubeadm join 10.0.0.42:6443 --token vt4ua6.23wer232423134 \ --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:3a2c36feedd14cff3ae835abcdefgesadf235adca0369534e938ccb307ba5
As the output above confirms that control-plane has been initialize successfully. In output also we are getting set of commands for interacting the cluster and also the command for worker node to join the cluster.
So, to start interacting with cluster, run following commands from the master node,
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
Now, try to run following kubectl commands to view cluster and node status
kubectl cluster-info kubectl get nodes
[email protected]:~ $ kubectl cluster-info Kubernetes control plane is running at https://10.0.0.42:6443 CoreDNS is running at https://10.0.0.42:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns:dns/proxy To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'. [email protected]:~ $ kubectl get nodes NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION k8smaster Ready control-plane 153m v1.26.1
If you only want to have one node you can run the following to allow scheduling on the master
kubectl taint node k8smaster node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule- kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master- kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane-
Join both the worker nodes to the cluster, command is already there is output, just copy paste on the worker nodes,
sudo kubeadm join k8smaster.example.net:6443 --token vt4ua6.23wer232423134 \ --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:3a2c36feedd14cff3ae835abcdefgesadf235adca0369534e938ccb307ba5
Output from both the worker nodes,
Check the nodes status from master node using kubectl command,
kubectl get nodes
As we can see nodes status is ‘NotReady’, so to make it active. We must install CNI (Container Network Interface) or network add-on plugins like Calico, Flannel and Weave-net.
Step 6) Install Calico Pod Network Add-on
Run following curl and kubectl command to install Calico network plugin from the master node,
curl https://projectcalico.docs.tigera.io/manifests/calico.yaml -O kubectl apply -f calico.yaml
Output of above commands would look like below,
Verify the status of pods in kube-system namespace,
kubectl get pods -n kube-system
Perfect, check the nodes status as well.
kubectl get nodes
Great, above confirms that nodes are active node. Now, we can say that our Kubernetes cluster is functional.
Step 7) Test Kubernetes Installation
To test Kubernetes installation, let’s try to deploy nginx based application and try to access it.
kubectl create deployment nginx-app --image=nginx --replicas=2
Check the status of nginx-app deployment
kubectl get deployment nginx-app NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE nginx-app 2/2 2 2 68s
Expose the deployment as NodePort,
kubectl expose deployment nginx-app --type=NodePort --port=80 service/nginx-app exposed
Run following commands to view service status
kubectl get svc nginx-app kubectl describe svc nginx-app
Output of above commands,
Use following command to access nginx based application,
Great, above output confirms that nginx based application is accessible.
That’s all from this guide, I hope you have found this guide useful. Most of this post comes from https://www.linuxtechi.com/install-kubernetes-on-ubuntu-22-04/ with modifications to work with ZFS.